1 large egg = 1 TBL ground Flaxseed meal plus 3 TBL water or 1 ½ tsp egg replacer plus 2 TBL water , 3 TBL apple sauce + 1 tsp baking powder, 4 TBL pureed silken tofu + 1 tsp baking powder*

1 cup milk = 1 cup milk alternative such as gluten-free almond, soy, hemp or rice milk, coconut milk (especially for desserts), 1 cup water + 1 egg yolk, 1 cup fruit juice.

1 cup buttermilk = 1 cup milk alternative + 1 TBL lemon juice or 1 TBL white vinegar (let stand to thicken), 1 cup coconut milk, 7/8 cup water or fruit juice.

1 cup butter = equal amounts of vegetable oil, or Spectrum Organic Shortening or Earth Balance Buttery Sticks, or ghee, or Fleischmann’s unsalted margarine or palm oil (when shortening is requested)

1 tsp baking powder = 1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar 

1 cup granulated sugar = 1 cup brown sugar (packed) , or 1 ¼ cups palm sugar, (if substituting honey, agave, or a liquid sweetener for granulated sugar use 1/2 cup liquid to 1 cup dry sweetener and increase flour by 2 to 4 TBL

potato starch can be exchanged for equal amounts cornstarch 

tapioca flour can be exchanged for equal amounts sweet rice flour brown rice flour can be exchanged for equal amounts white rice flour

1 ounce unsweetened chocolate can be exchanged for 3 TBL unsweetened cocoa powder and 1 TBL vegetable oil

*Here’s what Living Without Magazine has to say about substituting eggs: “Replacing more than two eggs will change the integrity of a recipe…Because egg substitutions add moisture, you may have to increase baking times slightly. “ With Bella Gluten-Free All Purpose Baking Mix and Pizza, Rolls and Focaccia Mix recipes, we find that flaxseed meal or egg replacer works well. The breads however may take a little experimenting and best substitution is determined by elevation and climate. Whatever is used in the breads, the end results will be more of a quick bread than a sandwich bread.